Automatic Detection of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections from In Situ Data: A Deep Learning Approach
Gautier Nguyen, Nicolas Aunai, Dominique Fontaine, Erwan Le Pennec, Joris Van den Bossche, Alexis Jeandet, Brice Bakkali, Louis Vignoli, and Bruno Regaldo-Saint Blancard The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 874, Number 2 doi : https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab0d24
Decades of studies have suggested several criteria to detect interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICME) in time
series from in situ spacecraft measurements. Among them, the most common are an enhanced and smoothly
rotating magnetic field, a low proton temperature, and a low plasma beta. However, these features are not all
observed for each ICME due to their strong variability. Visual detection is time-consuming and biased by the
observer interpretation, leading to non-exhaustive, subjective, and thus hardly reproducible catalogs. Using
convolutional neural networks on sliding windows and peak detection, we provide a fast, automatic, and multiscale
detection of ICMEs. The method has been tested on the in situ data from WIND between 1997 and 2015, and
on the 657 ICMEs that were recorded during this period. The method offers an unambiguous visual proxy of
ICMEs that gives an interpretation of the data similar to what an expert observer would give. We found at a
maximum 197 of the 232 ICMEs of the 2010–2015 period (recall 84%±4.5%), including 90% of the ICMEs
present in the lists of Nieves-Chinchilla et al. and Chi et al. The minimal number of False Positives was 25 out of 158 predicted ICMEs (precision 84%±2.6%). Although less accurate, the method also works with one or several
missing input parameters. The method has the advantage of improving its performance by just increasing the
amount of input data. The generality of the method paves the way for automatic detection of many different event
signatures in spacecraft in situ measurements.
Analyzing the magnetopause internal structure: New possibilities offered by MMS tested in a case studys
Rezeau, L., Belmont, G., Manuzzo, R., Aunai, N., Dargent, J. ( 2018). Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 123, 227– 241. doi : https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JA024526
We explore the structure of the magnetopause using a crossing observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft on 16 October 2015. Several methods (minimum variance analysis, BV method, and constant velocity analysis) are first applied to compute the normal to the magnetopause considered as a whole. The different results obtained are not identical, and we show that the whole boundary is not stationary and not planar, so that basic assumptions of these methods are not well satisfied. We then analyze more finely the internal structure for investigating the departures from planarity. Using the basic mathematical definition of what is a one‐dimensional physical problem, we introduce a new single spacecraft method, called LNA (local normal analysis) for determining the varying normal, and we compare the results so obtained with those coming from the multispacecraft minimum directional derivative (MDD) tool developed by Shi et al. (2005). This last method gives the dimensionality of the magnetic variations from multipoint measurements and also allows estimating the direction of the local normal when the variations are locally 1‐D. This study shows that the magnetopause does include approximate one‐dimensional substructures but also two‐ and three‐dimensional structures. It also shows that the dimensionality of the magnetic variations can differ from the variations of other fields so that, at some places, the magnetic field can have a 1‐D structure although all the plasma variations do not verify the properties of a global one‐dimensional problem. A generalization of the MDD tool is proposed.
Perpendicular Current Reduction Caused by Cold Ions of Ionospheric Origin in Magnetic Reconnection at the Magnetopause: Particle‐in‐Cell Simulations and Spacecraft Observations
Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 10,033– 10,042. doi : https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL079051
Sergio Toledo‐Redondo Jérémy Dargent Nicolas Aunai Benoit Lavraud Mats André Wenya Li Barbara Giles Per‐Arne Lindqvist Robert E. Ergun Christopher T. Russell James L. Burch
Cold ions of ionospheric origin are present throughout the Earth’s magnetosphere, including the dayside magnetopause, where they modify the properties of magnetic reconnection, a major coupling mechanism at work between the magnetosheath and the magnetosphere. We present Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) spacecraft observations of the reconnecting magnetopause with different amounts of cold ions and show that their presence reduces the Hall term in the Ohm’s law. Then, we compare two particle‐in‐cell simulations, with and without cold ions on the magnetospheric side. The cold ions remain magnetized inside the magnetospheric separatrix region, leading to the reduction of the perpendicular currents associated with the Hall effect. Moreover, this reduction is proportional to the relative number density of cold ions. And finally, the Hall electric field peak is reduced along the magnetospheric separatrix owing to cold ions. This should have an effect on energy conversion by reconnection from electromagnetic fields to kinetic energy of the particles.
Cold ion heating at the dayside magnetopause during magnetic reconnection
Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp. 58-66 DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015GL067187
Toledo-Redondo, S.; André, M.; Vaivads, A.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Lavraud, B.; Graham, D. B.; Divin, A.; Aunai, N.
Cold ions of ionospheric origin are known to be present in the magnetospheric side of the Earth’s magnetopause. They can be very abundant, with densities up to 100 cm-3. These cold ions can mass load the magnetosphere, changing global parameters of magnetic reconnection, like the Alfvén speed or the reconnection rate. In addition they introduce a new length scale related to their gyroradius and kinetic effects which must be accounted for. We report in situ observations of cold ion heating in the separatrix owing to time and space fluctuations of the electric field. When this occurs, the cold ions are preheated before crossing the Hall electric field barrier. However, when this mechanism is not present cold ions can be observed well inside the reconnection exhaust. Our observations suggest that the perpendicular cold ion heating is stronger close to the X line owing to waves and electric field gradients linked to the reconnection process.
BV technique for investigating 1-D interfaces
Published in Journal of Geophysical Research
Dorville Nicolas, Belmont Gerard, Rezeau Laurence, Aunai Nicolas Retinò, Alessandro
To investigate the internal structure of the magnetopause with spacecraft data, it is crucial to be able to determine its normal direction and to convert the measured time series into spatial profiles. We propose here a new single-spacecraft method, called the BV method, to reach these two objectives. Its name indicates that the method uses a combination of the magnetic field (B) and velocity (V) data. The method is tested on simulation and on Cluster data, and a short overview of the possible products is given. We discuss its assumptions and show that it can bring a valuable improvement with respect to previous methods.
The proton pressure tensor as a new proxy of the proton decoupling region in collisionless magnetic reconnection (ADS link, DOI)
Aunai, N.; Retinò, A.; Belmont, G.; Smets, R.; Lavraud, B.; Vaivads, A.
Cluster data is analyzed to test the proton pressure tensor variations as a proxy of the proton decoupling region in collisionless magnetic reconnection. The Hall electric potential well created in the proton decoupling region results in bounce trajectories of the protons which appears as a characteristic variation of one of the in-plane off-diagonal components of the proton pressure tensor in this region. The event studied in this paper is found to be consistent with classical Hall field signatures with a possible 20% guide field. Moreover, correlations between this pressure tensor component, magnetic field and bulk flow are proposed and validated, together with the expected counterstreaming proton distribution functions.
I had my PhD defense on Feb. 11 2011 in Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France. The topic is “Numerical simulation of magnetic reconnection : kinetic mechanisms behind the fluid description”. (Link)